Kulibits

Kulibints.

20 Russian craftsmen in this issue "Homeland" – drop in the sea. Believe me. There aren’t even thousands of them. And around each of them are thousands more of their helpers.

♪ We’ve got a whole country of inventors ♪!

# We know how to be proud # "¶ ¶" – ♪ and we do ♪. But we’re often proud in the abstract, in general. Dig a little bit into history, look around – there are many geniuses of different types, either in laptops or spectacles. Obscure, worn out and dull – it is in them that the intellectual essence of the Fatherland is concealed.

Everybody immediately remembers Kulibin. The name of a self-taught person has also become common nouns – people exalted by this name, those whom they mock. Sadly, during his lifetime Kulibin himself was valued as a toy. You can entertain the yard with funny "", You can show the overseas ones – we’re no strangers to the world, either. But to build his useful "waterways" ♪ no one would think of ♪.

Many people probably know Ivan Polzunov, Cherepanov’s father and offspring: the steam engine, the steel road, the two-cylinder engine. And the fruits of their technical insights were used only for museums and generalized pride.

By today’s standards, our great inventors, remembered by the "", – "suckers" и "". Careers crooked, foreheads smashed in blood. Untrained by the USE tests, molded from a different dough. Not "creatives" ♪ the underlings, the untarnished poets of engineering ♪.

Listen to what the turner Nartov called a collection of his own machines: "Teatrum Machinarum". It’s more powerful than.. "Faust" Goethe!

But "" Nartov’s hulks creaked to life. Nobody even raised an eyebrow at Pirotsky’s electric carriage (streetcar); later they bought one from Siemens. Aleksandrovsky, the inventor of the stereo photo, justified to the Navy the advantages of their own combat "torpedo" – he was pushed aside, they decided to take English ones. Freidenberg from Odessa made a mess of his own ATS and sold it to the Swede Ericsson, who got on with the job.

That’s the way it is, our own literate "progressives" It’s a bone in our throat – the Western one is a different matter. Even if it came later, even if it wasn’t better, but in order to "from abroad" – and it’s not just luxury tastes; "kickbacks" were not invented yesterday.

So in the school play "Thunderstorm", remember, Kuligin dreamed of making "a perepeta-mobile ". What was in the way?? "Ruthless characters, my lord, in our town, merciless". Such is our endless whirlwind. There’s not a dime a dozen of them, and they’re coming in from all over the place. We’ll get them in the door, they’ll get them out the window.

Bennardos got cheated out of his electric welding rights. They left him with nothing. And he’s got, like a bunch of knuckleheads in his pocket "a steamer on rollers", or.. "a washing machine".

Grigorovich was put in "", and there he figured out how to retract the fighter’s landing gear after takeoff. You can’t get past the smart guys. And you can’t teach them to think freely.

Dr. Pirogov was irreplaceable under bullets, until, out of spiritual simplicity, he told the tsar, on his return from the front, the whole truth about his poor appointees. Naturally, the freethinker is out of sight. But even the tsar couldn’t banish Pirogov from the history of civilization. He didn’t have the guts to change the master. Left-handed Leskov, who hacked up an English flea, asked for one thing before he died: to tell him that the English do not clean their rifles with bricks. Naturally, they did not. The Crimean campaign is underway, and our rifles have bullets dangling in them.

But Levsha, who had his head bashed in by his own men, was not angry at his attackers before he died – he thought about his loyalty to the Fatherland. "And with this faithfulness he crossed himself and died".

Perhaps we shall one day learn to keep their heads.

The self-taught mechanic Fedka Blinov is a serf peasant. He was born in one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one years into a blacksmith’s family in the village of Nikolskoye, Volsky District, Saratov Province. At the end of the 1840s, when there was a shortage and famine in the Volga region, the landowner Sergei Semenovich Uvarov (the one who served as Minister of Education) gave him a free. He went to the Volga to work as a hobo. And in 1850 he got his lucky ticket and got a stoker on the "Hercules".

He studied the steamer like five fingers, got to the position of machinist. At one point, when the shaft, which distributed the transmission to both drive wheels of the steamship, ruptured, he pondered and proposed to divide the ruptured shaft into two parts. It was said and done. He debugged everything so that the steamship became better than before: she could turn around, turn around, it became easier to steer… Blinov’s fame spread along the Volga River among the knowledgeable people.

And for years he’d been haunted by the idea of a self-propelled – "a carriage with endless rails". A self-propelled carriage with tracks.

Lucky again: I met Kanunnikov, a mercenary, who offered to help with the funds and the patent. But then there was a disagreement. Blinov gave up and left. He rented a cast-iron foundry in Balakovo and for 6 years he built the desired steam-powered self-propelled vehicle. The caterpillar chain links were drilled by hand from a single piece of metal.

But it all worked out!

Blinov believed that such a useful thing would be ripped off from him at the whistle. In 1896, he took his magic to Nizhny Novgorod to the All-Russian Industrial and Art Exhibition. And received a certificate of merit "For his diligence".

A German company (he didn’t even remember the name) offered Blinov to sell "self-propelled machine" for a great deal of money. He said no: "I’m a Russian man, I made it for Russia". He was supported only by Maxim Gorkovaty, who burst out "with some cursory remarks" – about how people’s artisans are being squeezed in favor of foreigners with wallets. Words "kickback" was not used then – but the essence was still the same.

After the fair, Blinov fell ill, his legs paralyzed from frustration. He died at the age of 70. And overseas there were tractors of their own, only even later.

А. Platonov. "A prosaic affair"

The essence of the invention.

Blinov’s tractor was the following: on rectangular frame of 2 longitudinal 5-meter beams and connecting transverse ones, in the center there was 1,5 m high boiler with 1,3 m width (made from burnt pipe of the steamship). The boiler was oil-fired and designed for 6 atmospheres. From the same steam ship two low-speed steam engines (10-12 hp.с. at 40 revolutions per minute) which stood on the side supports of the frame. Each caterpillar was moved by its own machine. To turn the tractor, one of steam engines and one of the caterpillars was turned off.

Drawing force of the self-propelled machine – 1100-1200 kg. Speed of three versts per hour.

Competitors.

The British John Heathcote received a patent in 1932 and five years later built the prototype of a machine for plowing and draining swamps. Yankee Warren Miller exhibited his machine at the Marysville State Farm Show in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight. But their machines were not practical. The first crawler tractor was dubbed Alvin Lombard’s machine in the year 1891.

The strange tractor bristling with combs, conveyors, barns and drums was pulled to the stubble by four horses. The name of this ingenious machine was: "the horse-drawn corn harvester".

There is very little information about its young creator: neither his birthday nor his date of death. It is clear only that in one thousand eight hundred sixty five years, Andrey Romanovich Vlasenko graduated from Gory-Gorki Agricultural College in Mogilev region. And, having received his certificate, he arrived in the village of Borisovskoye, Bezhetsky District, Tver Province, at the estate of I. П. Novosiltsev’s estate, where he worked as a steward for 10 years.

The tests of one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight years passed successfully. Then from the agronomist A. Р. Vlasenko, the agronomist, received a petition to the department of agriculture "privilege" for a ten-year privilege "horse grain harvesting at the root". An unprecedented undertaking! All over the Russian Federation bread was threshed with sickles and scythes, threshed with simple chains, but Vlasenko’s machine combined both harvesting and threshing. That’s how it was called: “Reaper-thresher”.

On the 1st day of the trial four hectares of oats were threshed. On the 2nd day more than 4 tens of barley were threshed in 10 hours. 20 times faster than by hand! And eight times faster than an American reaper "McCormick" – which also doesn’t thresh and loses 10-30 poods of grain per tithe.

The creator of the first harvester, they say, was modest and self-critical. Thought his car wasn’t perfect. A group of scientists and landowners appealed for assistance to Vlasenko in such a useful municipal matter. This, in fact, is the end of the story of yet another nugget.

Alexander Alexeyevich Zelenovatoy, the Adjutant General and the Minister of State Property, who was also in charge of agriculture, pinned a petition for the production of a Russian threshing machine with a sweeping resolution: "”Our mechanical factories are not capable of making this complex machine! But we bring from abroad more common reaper-carriers and crushers".

A year later, the Americans and the British brought their machines to the Austro-Hungarian world exhibition. Vlasenko’s car did not make it there: Zelenovatoy refused to allocate money for the transportation. In order to make up for the inconvenience, in April of the year 1897, Vlasenko was presented "for his highly useful activity" gold medal of the Free Economic Society.

The two threshing machines he built with his savings worked until they were completely worn out.

И. Ilf, E. Petrov. "Golden Calf"

The essence of the invention.

The Vlasenko combine harvester had a comb for tearing the ears, a bucket conveyor for feeding the mass to the breaker’s beaters, and a big wood chest for gathering the grain, which was passed through the sieve and separated from the heap of grass, weeds, earth, and sand. The threshed ears and grass came off the sieve and into hanging bags.

The machine was powered by 3 horses, but in the case of dense, fallen grain it was powered by 2 pairs of horses and operated by 2 workers.

Competitors.

The first counterparts appeared in the United States in 1939. It can be compared: the South American machine was driven by 20 four mules and serviced by seven workers. And the productivity is the same as in the machine.

Vlasenko, who worked with 3 horses and 2 workers. The loss of grain was also incomparable. By one thousand eight hundred and eighty-seven, there were several improved harvesters, Benjamin Holt (he is considered the inventor of the harvester in the United States). In 1898/1990 they started to build them from the factory.

Why did he run away to America and never come back?? It is usually argued (by both philistines and principals) that over the ocean, unlike here, they can appreciate geeks, "because they often invent new things". This is both true and untrue – life is more intricate. Almost everything can be read in Zvorykin’s underwritten memoirs. Beginning with how the son of the first guild negociant Kozma Zvorykin, a bread merchant, steamboat owner, and banker, once got into the habit of making all of Murom’s neighbors newfangled electric phone calls. And about student rallies. About the madness that followed, when the country plunged into bandit chaos after the February Revolution and has not come out of it since. About his adventures in searching for criteria for his scientific work – he could not find them with either the White Russians or the Bardovs, and so he fled to America, where it is quiet and rich. Did they expect.. ""?

In one thousand nine hundred and twenty-three years, Zvorykin, having joined the "Westinghouse" (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), tried to patent his idea for electric television. The patent was rejected. And the company management laughed and asked him "to do something more useful". He learned that ideas here only make sense "the possibility of profit becomes trivial to people in business". This opportunity seemed trivial a little later to David Sarnoff, president of RCA – if not for his support, who knows how Zvorykin would have managed to get through?

Already in 1933, he was invited to Russia: he came, played and listened a lot, traveling all over the country by plane (Beria personally singled him out), he visited theaters. In all this he was afraid. But he was warmly welcomed. He was afraid, but a year later he flew back, made a big deal for RCA. And then he didn’t manage to come back until 1959.

There’s a record of how the FBI had been following him all this time. Surveillance, wiretaps, mail searches, apartment searches, even denunciations from senators. In 1945, travel from the U.S. was forbidden, taking away his passport for two years – Zvorykin began to cooperate with the Foundation for War Victims in Russia.

There, he was suspected of aiding and abetting the Soviets. Here they thought he was spying for America. And he invented for himself, for the benefit of people who saw in it their own commercial sense. In 1917, when he came to Vladimir as a tourist, he got into a cab without permission and drove to his hometown of Murom, a closed city.

He never learned British, having lived a lot of years in the United States. On July 20, 1912, in Princeton infirmary, he gave his last telephone interview. He reminisced about his youth, said he was about to die of old age. And died a few hours later.

В. Shukshin. "Made Up Stories"

The essence of invention.

In one thousand nine hundred and thirty-one years Vladimir Zvorykin made in America iconoscope, a transmitting electron-beam tube with the highest photosensitivity and the ability to store the necessary charge of point photocells. (When a transmitted image is scanned, its elements act on the photosensitive layer in millionths of a second. For the picture to be accurate and vivid, it is necessary to enhance the photocurrent stimulated by the image, which was not possible before).

1st Russian TV "VK" was made according to the developments of Zvorykin.

Competitors.

There was a self-taught man from Idaho, Philo Farnsworth, who developed the Image Dissector in 1898. In the same year, Kalman Tihanyi, a Hungarian, patented his own television camera. But their development was inferior Zvorykin, so much so that David Sarnov, president of RCA, for which Zvorykin worked, soon bought their patents for $ 1 million.

Nikita Khrushchev’s meeting with President Nixon in the pavilion of "Sokolniki Park", at the opening of the American exhibition in 1949, the foreign guests were recorded on VCRs of "Ampex". Nixon gave Khrushchev a videotape. Only Khrushchev could not watch it: at that time there was nothing on.

And the title of the office "Ampex" The name of the company was transcribed by the initials of its creator, Alexander Matveyevich Poniatov, with the addition experimental, experimental.

The scion of a rich peasant, who made his living by logging, apiaries and trade, Alexander Matveyevich was born on March, 20, 5 in the village of Russian Aisha of Chepchugovskaya volost of Kazan province. He turned out to be a big-headed and handy man. After finishing Real School, he enrolled in the Physics Department of the Kazan Institute, and from there he went on to the Imperial Higher Technical School (now the Bauman Moscow State Technical University). Bauman), and then to the Polytechnic School in the German town of Karlsruhe (he escaped punishment for his role in student unrest). Later, war, revolution, Chinese emigration, France, America.

There was a time, worked without pay. At the same time I built a laboratory in my garage. went up. By the time I was 50, I had my own company "Ampex". Seven years with a team of researchers (among them a young Ray Dolby, who would later create dolby digital) worked on the promising development of the VCR – and in his sixty-four years ahead of all rivals.

The inventor was honored – even "the Oscar" for his contribution to the development of video technology. By the way, and the word "video" (from the Latin vide – to look) stuck with him. Why didn’t he ever return to his homeland?. He tried to find his relatives, who received letters but kept silent (as they now think: they were afraid). And before his death, Poniatov confessed how tormented he was: he wouldn’t leave his children behind, "He would have passed everything on to his own country, all of his own experience, but it was unrealistic. They won’t even let me set up a branch of my company in Russia".

In his old age the great engineer used to subscribe to the Soviet newspaper "Izvestia". He died in 1880. Fifteen years later, his unsinkable "Ampex".

All his life the inventor planted a birch tree near each of his offices.

В. Pelevin. Generation "П"

The essence of invention.

On April 4, 1956, in Chicago at the convention of the National Association of Television and Radio Journalists, Poniatov showed the first commercial AmpexVRX-1000 video recorder. All the leading TV studios in the U.S. bought it right there.

Before that, it took kilometers of tape to record a two-minute clip. TV signal occupies a bandwidth 500 times wider than the broadcast (audio) bandwidth. At this bandwidth, the magnetic tape flies past the magnetic head at 50 meters per second. To reduce this speed, Ponyatov and his team used cross-line recording with rotary heads on a relatively wide tape (two inches, in other words 50.8 mm) with 4 rotary heads.

Rivals.

The main rival of Ampex in the development of video recording devices at first was RCA, where Vladimir Zvorykin worked. But Poniatov beat them by a year.

At one point in the year one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one, a balloon flew over the market on Odessa’s Privozhnaya Square. A 23-year-old comedian was waving his hat from the balloon. Either an artist. Or a designer. Or all at once – Mishka Freidenberg (pseudonym "Wasp") was a recognizable inventor. He built the balloon, by the way, according to his own drawings – from bound canvas. And the tickets from below were sold by his young friend Leonid Pasternak, a well-known painter and the father of a better-known poet in the near future.

Freidenberg, the offspring of a craftsman, was born in the town of Prasnysz (now Polish Przasnysz) in Plock province. At the age of 18, he opened his first drama theater in Evpatoria: he acted and staged it himself. Later he went off to satire, later he took part in Joseph Timchenko’s work on the first cinematograph.

He seemed to grasp at everything – he was curious about everything. On this ground and met with Berdichevsky (Apostolov) – he worked in the workshop of Timchenko at the Institute. About Berdichevsky, the most intelligent inventor, it is clear so insignificantly not enough that, annoying as it may sound, we can repeat little. But the fact remains that at first, in the 1890s, Berdichevsky with Freudenberg were suddenly engaged in telephone communication. It’s not routine, it’s galactic! And the view is wider than from a balloon over the square: the world with the telephone network will be entangled in virtual intimacy! "The telephone coupler" – that’s what they dubbed their station.

By one thousand eight hundred and ninety-three years they presented at the Department of Applied Physics and Mechanics of the Novorossiysk Institute in Odessa an automatic telephone exchange for two hundred and fifty numbers. Such a breakthrough! But it was met by sour. Then and. Then they went to London. The British appreciated it. And issued a patent in the year one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five. And later issued patents for all the improvements and refinements – the capacity of their PBX expanded to 10 thousand numbers.

They couldn’t organize their business. Berdichevsky gave up on everything and returned to Odessa. And Freidenberg got bored, so he sold his patent to Erikson’s company.

А. Chekhov. "By the phone"

The essence of the invention.

The basic element of a decade-step automatic telephone exchange is an electro-mechanical device, which automatically analyzes incoming pulses. Each pulse corresponds to a digit, which is dialed by pulse dialing. The contact field is divided into 10 rows, 10 contacts in each (deka – Greek. "10"). Stepping – as the ratchet mechanism moves the rotating contact brushes through the 10 fixed positions on the contact field step by step.

Rivals.

The first telephone exchange was built in 1997 to a design by the Hungarian engineer T. Pushkash. But the quality of the connection was so poor that the expertise acknowledged: it was possible to talk "only up to ten kilometers away". In one thousand eight hundred and eighty-nine. Yankee A. Stroonger patented the decade-step seeker. And Freudenberg and Berdichevsky made the first ten-step switchboard. Three years after the British, they were granted a patent in the Russian Federation.

Pirotsky was the offspring of Apollo, the military doctor. Fyodor Apollonovich’s life was spent in uniform, bubbling over. And here "a scalawag" and a desperate servant, apparently, he was not. He thought more about the good of the Fatherland than about rank.

He was educated in the cadet school, in the artillery, served in the artillery. But he was sick "with electricity". Serving in St. Petersburg, he harassed the governing bodies with his irrepressible undertakings. Developed an extraordinary system of blast furnaces and baking ovens. He sparkled with an article "About transmitting the work of water as a propulsor over any distance by means of galvanic current". It was practically about developing a network of hydroelectric power stations, which "in our Rf. can be of great use, which is not hard to see if you look at the map". (He suggested Narva Waterfall as a starting point).

In 1875 – 1876 he experimented with letting a carriage down a steel road near Sestroretsk. An electric motor and gearbox were attached to the frame of the horse-drawn carriage and sent the wheels into rotation. The newspapers bubbled with exaltation and the owners of the horse-drawn carriages vehemently denounced "of the demonic nature of ". But the authorities brushed me off and didn’t give me any money to improve the construction.

They say only Carl Siemens was interested. A man with connections, favored by the St. Petersburg authorities, he had already had a lucrative contract to build a Russian telegraph network. And in the case of Pirotsky, he realized that it was worthwhile. He questioned the inventor, studied the blueprints.

In one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one years the Siemens brothers’ company started to build wagons, which suspiciously resembled the design of the Russian engineer. Their streetcars ran, and our homeland began to buy them from Siemens as of one thousand eight hundred and ninety-two years ago. What about Pirotsky??

Nothing. Fed up with his fantasies, he was retired with a cut-rate pension, on which he could not live long in St. Petersburg. He stayed in a hotel in Alyoshki (Tsyurupinsk, Kherson region). In May of the year 1898, the newspaper "South" informed, that on February, 20 eighth, not suitable to anybody Fedor Apollonovich died. There was nothing to bury him with, there was no money found for his funeral, and for the funeral they sold his junk by auction on the square. Sixty-five rubles were raised. Five laires, four suitcases and three cases with some papers, pictures and books nobody wanted to take.

М. Bulgakov. "The Master and Margarita"

The essence of the invention.

In September 1947 in the Volkov Field in St. Petersburg, Fedor Pirotsky demonstrated how a six-shaft dynamo driven by a steam locomotive gave rise to a current which was sent through wires 50 meters away to set in motion the second dynamo. In 1946 the tests of the motor-driven train were carried out. Power was supplied through the rails, one of which was a straight wire and the other was a return wire (at 100 volt fixed current). The carriage with 40 passengers traveled at the speed of 10-12 km. After modifications the demonstration took place in August 1880 in St. Petersburg.

Rivals.

Pirotsky’s experiments remained experiments. It is considered that Werner von Siemens was the inventor of the streetcar. After the Berlin exhibition, the brothers showed their own train all over Europe, until in one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one years the first Siemens streetcar & Halske was not run on the purpose-built steel road between Berlin and Lichterfeld.

He was obviously an artistic man. And if he was keen, he would dive headlong into anything new. That’s what happened with the hitherto unknown daguerreotype art. (Daguerreotype, which used silver-plated copper light-sensitive plates, was the beginning of photography.).

In 1851 in "Yaroslavl provincial gazette" he flashed an advertisement: ready to take portraits for city dwellers (of any size). And just a few years later, the Petersburg newspapers informed the honorable society of a newfangled daguerreotype studio opened on the corner of Nevsky Prospekt and Bolshaya Sadovaya Street. "The St. Petersburg Herald" sang with gusto: "Not a bad painter and a very knowledgeable chemist, Alexandrovsky dedicated himself to photography and became an accomplished daguerreotypist and photographer. and achieved a considerable degree of perfection. Especially remarkable are his collodiontypes on glass and paper, made using a new method he himself had perfected. "

He worked nonstop. Went to the Caucasus for videotaping. At the Nizhny Novgorod fair he made a daguerreotype portrait of popular critic N. А. Dobrolyubov with his father. He took a lot of pictures of Alexander II’s family and milieu. In 1852 Alexandrovsky made the first stereoscopic photos with the camera he himself had invented. In 1829 he was awarded the title of "”Photographer to His Majesty’s Majesty".

It seemed what else to expect from life! And the artist man first 1860’s suddenly designed the first submarine in Russia (in the form of a triangle with a round base, in the form of the body of sturgeon fish with a sharp back). Then he developed underwater mines – "torpedo". And in one thousand eight hundred and sixty-six years he thoughtlessly sold his photo studio in connection with enlisting in the Navy.

Well, after that, it was pretty much the same as always. The submarine was not allowed to be brought to reason, torpedoes were absolutely refused to be made (the British soon had them). In 1880 Aleksandrovsky was suspended from work and two years later dismissed from service. The funds that were promised to be returned – his own -! – were not returned.

the forgotten, bankrupt 77-year-old inventor of torpedoes, submarines and cameras died in a hospital for the poor in one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four.

В. Aksenov. "Mysterious passion"

The essence of invention.

Previously "Daguerreotype apparatus with one dispassionate glass window was used. Subjects were photographed either in two stages by one machine, or by 2 machines, one set apart from the other at a distance, but neither method gave satisfactory results".

Aleksandrovsky’s stereo camera eliminated these shortcomings. It consisted of 2 wooden boxes, one of which was inserted into the other. The inner box is divided into two halves by a wooden partition. Its back part was cassette: frosted glass for sharpening was inserted into it, and then a cassette with a record. The front of the outer drawer had two holes where two lenses were inserted.

Rivals.

The principle of the two-lens apparatus was described by British optical physicist David Brewster. But the first to do so was Ivan Alexandrovsky. In 1957, the Russian designer D. N. Blokhin was the first to develop a double-lens telescope. П. Ezuchevsky improved the stereoscopic camera.

In 1872 the world reawakened: it is possible that the traveler Miklukho-Maklai was eaten by the aborigines? A corvette was sent to the scientist’s rescue. And on the bank of the Lopan river in Kharkov, Osya Timchenko, a pupil of the mechanic and optician, was pining away. Two years later, he took a trip with his friends to the sea, to Odessa. As unfortunate as it sounds, there was no way to get to Oceania. Got a job in a shipyard. I built a little bit of it. And when the Novorossiysk (today’s Odessa) Institute announced the vacancy for a mechanic at the training workshops, Timchenko was chosen from four candidates.

In the two-storey workshop the second floor was reserved for Josef and his wife and children (there will be eight of them). for more than forty years he will manage the whole mechanics of the institute, where such outstanding minds as Mechnikov, Sechenov and Shvedov worked and created. He built equipment for the observatory and mud baths, instruments for doctors and meteorologists. And one beautiful day he was approached by Nikolai Lyubimov, a prominent Russian physicist engaged in the study of stroboscopic phenomena. He asked the mechanic to invent such a "snail" – a jumping mechanism to intermittently change the frames in the strobe.

A month later, the device was ready. And so it went! For his friends’ amusement, Joseph built "a kinetoscope" (or "electrotachyscope"). November 7, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-three years "Odessa Gazette" notified: "In the house of the hotel "France" opened an art exhibition "of live photos", propelled by the medium of an electronic machine". For ten days, two "films", made at the racetrack – "The Javelin Thrower" и "Rider". The Lumière brothers were still sleeping quietly in distant Paris.

On January 9, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four years, Dr. Lyubimov showed these world-first films to a metropolitan audience at the 9th Congress of Russian Naturalists and Doctors. Timchenko was collectively commended. That was the end of the story of the first cinetoscope. A fully working kinetoscope by Timchenko is still kept to this day in the Polytechnic Museum in Moscow under a plaque: "The first cinematograph for filming, printing and showing tape".

Until the end of his days Osip Timchenko lived in Odessa and continued to invent.

В. Astafiev. "Pass"

The essence of invention.

How did Timchenko’s kinetoscope work with a jumping mechanism? "The snail" provided an interrupted motion of the tape so that the image was paused before the projection was replaced by the next frame. It was achieved by a special construction of the gear in the mechanism.

Rivals.

Two years after the premiere of Joseph Timchenko’s films, on December 20, 1958, Auguste and Louis Lumiere made the first commercial film projections. The Lumière apparatus came later than the Russian one, but they were the first to put cinema on stream, to make it fashionable and commercially successful.

One day on March 20 and nine, one thousand nine hundred and eight years, Tolstoy received a letter at Yasnaya Polyana. Someone Prokudin-Gorsky reported to the classic: the day before he happened to show someone ("I have forgotten the surname"I’ve forgotten the surname) a color photographic plate, on which someone photographed the writer. So, this someone filmed Tolstoy terribly. While the creator of the letter "managed, after years of work, to achieve a stunning rendering of the images in true color". The creator allows himself to ask Lev Nikolayevich "to come for a day or two to take some pictures in color of you and your wife".

Grimly Lev Nikolayevich read it and ordered the secretary not to answer the letter, "". "I don’t need to be photographed, but Sofya Andreyevna will be better off". In a word, by morning Tolstoy had changed his mind and agreed.

In May Prokudin-Gorsky came to Yasnaya Polyana for three days.

This picture is now known to the whole world.

It won’t be long before they name him "the creator of true homeland studies". He, who was born in 1883 into the family of a retired officer in the village of Funikova Gora, Vladimir province. He, who studied under Mendeleev himself. Him, who married the daughter of the Russian metal expert, director of the Gatchina copper-smelting and steelworks, A. S. Kremenko.С. Lavrov. And at the end of the 19th century he had already given reports "On photographing starry rains".

The Russian authorities would lend him a special carriage with a laboratory, steamboats, boats, and a "Ford", They’ll tell him to favor him in every possible way. And Prokudin-Gorsky will go on his endless colorful journeys. As if for us, today, he wrote about the significance of his own works: "The only way to show and justify to the Russian youth, who have already forgotten or have not seen their own country at all, all the power, all the importance, all the greatness of the Russian Federation, and thus awaken the national consciousness so necessary, is to show its beauty and wealth as they really were in reality, that is. е. in true colors".

After the revolution Prokudin-Gorsky was appointed doctor of the Institute of Photography, but in the summer of 1918, after learning of the execution of the royal family, he left Russia. Sergei Mikhailovich died in Paris in 1944. He was buried in the Russian cemetery of Sainte-Genevieve-des-Bois.

He took about two thousand out of the three thousand and five hundred negatives he had preserved. The heirs sold them cheap. They are now in the Library of Congress.

М. Zoshchenko. "The Photo Card"

The essence of the invention.

Prokudin-Gorsky was able to select a difficult composition that increased the photosensitivity of the bromosilver plate and made it moderately sensitive to all colors.

Whereas previous methods had achieved exposure "in the brightest sunlight" Whereas the former methods achieved exposure in the brightest sunlight for up to 30-40 minutes (in the pavilion from 1.5 to 3.5 hours), the Prokudin-Gorsky method made the exposure actually instantaneous. And it was possible to make any number of copies from the negatives and print the photos on paper.

rivals.

In 1917 the company "Lumiere" patented the photographic plates "Autochrome", but Lumière’s exposure was also long-lasting; the color negative disappeared when called into the diapositive (which meant that you couldn’t print pictures), and the diapositive faded and burst under the projector’s light.

Scriabin was not of this world. He came out, like an elf, to the piano, and the enthusiastic poets felt "a kind of luminous creepiness". It was as if he didn’t even argue: "All that surrounds me, and myself, is less than a dream". And so life flew by.

Five-year Muscovite (born Sasha boy in December 1871, the new style on January 6, one thousand eight hundred seventy-two years), already well liked the piano.) already played the piano well, but he was sent to learn in a cadet corps – the offspring of a prominent diplomat was being trained by the military. Even so, having left cadet school Scriabin went to the Moscow Conservatoire. Here the first of the century’s (later) most brilliant composers was expelled from the composition class because he failed to achieve a grade. He finished his piano course with a small gold medal.

His friend Konstantin Balmont, listening to Scriabin’s music, felt the "the smell of old witchcraft". Both were sinking deeper and deeper into thoughts of the god-man, of the struggle of light and darkness. Time had strung up their nerves. Scriabin began "to create" his works in the form of luminous spheres and crystal garlands. He thought more and more deeply about how to enchant unknowable time – by ordering chaos with music.

Against this backdrop, his Prometheus.. "Prometheus", symphonic "Poem of Fire" for piano, orchestra (including organ), voice (or chorus) and the part of Luce. – light). Dr. A. Moser used his sketches to build a special color-music apparatus. Engineer P. Millar is another. But the apparatus went astray and the audience was left cold.

What did Scriabin need it for?? Every tonality for him had its own color and characteristic. Reddish (C major) was hell. Blue (F-sharp major) and violet (C-sharp major) were the mind. The tonality of D major is as yellow as the sun. And G major is orange. A synthesis of sensory associations (he dreamed of influencing the sense, the sense of touch, yes, everything) should govern the listener’s imagination.

He, who was expected to do great things, died of a terrible absurdity: a furuncle squeezed out unsuccessfully, sepsis appeared. Buried at Novodevichy. As he died, the magical Scriabin warned: "The population of the earth will have to endure a terrible era; all magic will evaporate, spiritual needs will fade. The age of machines, of electricity and purely cynical aspirations. The dreadful tests are coming. "

В. Aksenov. "Bottled water"

The essence of invention.

The Skryabin Museum in Moscow houses a light apparatus made by physicist A. Moser specifically for "Prometheus". Twelve light bulbs on a tree circle. Seven alternate in accordance with the colors of the spectrum (red, orange, yellowish, greenish, blue, cyan, violet). 5 additional ones connect the last spectral colors, forming transition from violet to reddish, pinkish, pinkish-red. This circle corresponds to the quint circle: reddish – C, orange – G, yellowish – D, greenish – E.

Rivals.

The Russian composer N. А. Rimsky-Korsakov. Poet K. Balmont even assigns "a single color and sound system" a double name: Scriabin – Rimsky-Korsakov.

One usually thinks of lathes as the beast of obolo, mischievous, stoic and barking. But you can only think like that until you see Nartoff’s lathes (there are some in the Hermitage). On them, it seems, you don’t work, you dance cotillions. All monogrammed, with patterns of birds and Achilles, with twisted legs and quirks in the style of Russian Baroque. Never before or after Nartov had such lathes. They have personal engravings on them as well: "Mechanic Andrey Nartov. St. Petersburg".

master of this skill was noticed in one thousand seven hundred twelve years by Peter I: he took the 16-year-old Andrei Nartov out of the workshops of the Capital School of Mathematics and Navigation Sciences to the capital – and made him his "personal turners". Right in the royal palace they set up "a lathe at the royal palace", where Nartov worked and lived – and Peter never parted with him until his own death.

Nartov first solved the main problem: the old machines were still good for wood, but not for metal. To cut metal, one must hold the tool aggressively and not move it manually along the workpiece. Nartov had already solved this problem in 1717. Peter was glad to send him to Europe to spy on their innovations and to brag about his own. Europe was impressed by Nart machines. In Berlin, Friedrich Wilhelm I asked Nartov for a visit – to lathe. What a pity, the turner Nartov told the Prussian "King-Soldier " the secrets of his skill.

Nartov was in such high esteem for a long time. His offspring was christened by Peter the Great himself. But Peter died in January 1725. And Nartov was asked to leave the palace "was asked to" – to Moscow to fix the minting technique. Nartov took up the gouging machines (for engraving "the edge", ribs of coins). He helped with manufacturing of the Tsar Bell. He designed "hulks for the observatory".

Eventually Nartov was returned to St. Petersburg to look after the former royal workshop, "The laboratory of mechanical affairs". Here Nartov understood himself to be the custodian of the Inheritance of the Majestic Tsar! A work he wrote: "Peter the Great’s Reliable Narratives and Speeches". Apparently, he boasted terribly. His friend, Ivan Danilovich Schumacher, the secretary of the Academy, puffed that this interpreter of the precepts was crude and had nothing "except the art of lathe work". Lomonosov incited Nartov – and intrigues and hullabaloo ensued.

But what is all this nonsense to us now?! Nartov kept inventing – that’s the main thing. Andrei Konstantinovich left his work: "Teatrum Mahinarum, in other words, The Clear Spectacle of Machins", with drawings of three dozen of his own machines.

У.Faulkner. "The Desecrator of Ashes"

The essence of the invention.

Before Nartov’s invention, when working on the lathe, the tool was either adapted somehow or simply held in the hand. Nartov had welded together a reliable "pedestal" (as he himself called it), also known as a support (lat. (I support this), the principle of which has not changed to this day. "The steel hand", which held the chisel, moved by means of a screw pair, in other words a screw which was screwed into a nut.

Rivals.

The invention of the slide was attributed to the British Henry Maudsley – preserved his lathe dating from one thousand seven hundred and ninety-seven years (in the English Museum of Science). But there’s nothing to argue about – Nartov beat the Briton by eighty years.

That steamer on the rinks gave Benardos no rest. Well, imagine: it skips over the shoals and skirts the obstacles on the rails. By that time the dreamer had already married, built an estate near the Kostroma village of Lukh and was even elected to the provincial zemstvo assembly. But he fell victim to a rumor – about his love affair with Princess Bersenyeva. Benardos had a little talk – he took and whipped the gossip. The tribunal sentenced him to Siberia for insult, which was replaced by a three-month brig and deprivation of the right to work in the civil service. That’s when he took up the steam-powered velociraptor.

Built it, named it "Nikolai" in honor of his eldest offspring, tested it, sailed three hundred kilometers along the Lukh and Klyazma to Gorokhovets. Took his magic to St. Petersburg. Showed it well. Not a single bureaucrat or industrialist raised an eyebrow. The steamship, for which the estate was mortgaged, was left for firewood.

But everyone in Benardos’ family was stubborn. The portrait of their grandfather, General Pantelei Yegorovich, is in the Gallery of Heroes of the Russian War in 1812 in the Hermitage. His father, a colonel, fought in the Crimea. Well, his offspring, having lost his steamer, became interested in. in electrical engineering.

In one thousand eight hundred and eighty-two years at the International Electronic Exhibition in Paris, Benardos showed for the first time a new method of electric welding: his own method of "of joining and separating metals by the action of an electron current" he called "electrogefest". The onlookers at the exhibition gawked as Benardos cut through the thick rails – and his invention was awarded a gold medal.

But there was no money for a patent. The inventor’s estate was sold for debt. It was then that the wealthy negociant Olszewski offered to help Benardos – with the condition that he would become part-owner of the patents. Benardos agreed and took out patents in France, England, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Spain, Denmark, the United States, Switzerland and Austria-Hungary. All patents except the Russian one have Olszewski as co-owner.

In 1898 he moved to Fastov, near Kiev, because he had nothing to live on. He died in an almshouse in Fastov on September 20, 1955.

The model of a suit of the welder (manufacture of Shatursky garment factory) was dubbed "Benardos".

The Strugatsky Brothers. "Carnivorous things of the century"

The essence of invention.

Electronic arc welding with a carbon electrode is called the "Benardos method". В "privilege" this method was described as follows: "The subject matter of the invention. is based on the formation of a volt arc between an electrode containing one electrode and a handle containing another electrode, which is supplied to this electrode. "

Competitors.

At the 4th Electronic Exhibition in St. Petersburg Benardos began a dispute with Nikolay Slavyanov, an engineer from the Urals, about the superiority in the discovery of electric welding. In 1892, a committee of professionals from the Russian Technical Society came to a conclusion in favor of both inventors. Then the tribunal also established the complete autonomy of the methods "of electric welding" Benardos and "of the electronic casting of metals" Slavyanov.

In June of the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty, the forty-year-old Dr. Pirogov and the twenty-two-year-old Baroness Alexandra Bistrom were on their honeymoon. On his way to his wife’s parents’ estate to get married, Pirogov asked Alexandra Antonovna to gather all the poor people who needed surgery for his arrival: they should not be bored on their honeymoon.

Three years earlier, on February 14, one thousand eight hundred and forty-seven years, Nikolai Ivanovich performed the first operation using ether anesthesia. While others argued about the innovation, Pirogov tested the characteristics of ether on dogs, calves, even on himself and his own assistants. And, having decided to use ether narcosis in war, he left immediately for the Caucasus. In the hottest spot of the day. In the Samurt detachment that besieged the fortified village of Salti, the hospital consisted of several shacks with benches made of pebbles and covered with grass. Pirogov performed 100 operations with ether anesthesia while kneeling. For the first time in the world – on the battlefield.

And in one thousand eight hundred and fifty-three years the Crimean War began – and Nikolai Ivanovich rushed to Sevastopol. At first he introduced the sorting of the crippled – also for the first time. Who to operate urgently, under bullets, who to evacuate to the rear after the first aid. Thanks to Pirogov, sisters of mercy appeared in the Russian army "the Sisters of the Cross Community for the Crippled and Sick" and wrote to his wife: "”To this day we have completely ignored the marvellous gifts of our ladies". And a year earlier he had begun to use the alabaster bandage for healing fractures.

After the fall of Sevastopol, the founder of military field medicine at the reception of Alexander II, with all the soldiers straightforwardness said that he thought about the leadership of the army Prince Menshikov. How did the wisest tsar-reformer respond? Pirogov was removed from the Medical-Surgical Academy, exiled, first, as a trustee of the Odessa and Kiev school districts, and later completely abroad, in the German Heidelberg – to manage the Russian doctoral candidates.

Before dying, Pirogov carefully pointed out in a note the diagnosis of his own disease.

Ю. Olesha. "Farewell book"

The essence of the invention.

The drowsy effect of ether ("sweet vitriol") was understood a long time ago. Pirogov also designed an unusual mask that allowed exactly the right amount of ether to be inhaled.

Pirogov was inspired to use gypsum in medicine by the architect N. А. Stepanov: he saw in his studio how plaster binds a canvas. And he applied canvas strips soaked in plaster solution to the following unhealthy person with a fracture of the lower leg. The oblique fracture, which had a lot of blood, healed even without suppuration.

Rivals.

In the overseas literature, the idea of a plaster cast is occasionally attributed to the Belgian doctor Mathiesen, but it is documented that it was first proposed and applied by.

Н. И. Pirogov. The idea of intravenous anesthesia also belonged entirely to Nikolai Ivanovich, and not to Flournes, Ors or Burkgardt. The same is true of intratracheal anesthesia. Pirogov used it five years before the British John Snow.

On the table, the dog’s head, separate from his body – tubes and hoses connected it to the cunning system of pumps and vessels that replaced the lungs and heart. The head is squinting against the glaring light, ears trembling as it hears the hammering, tongue licking nose that smells like lemon.

It’s not a "a horror film" It’s not a horror flick, it’s footage from an educational film "Body Reanimation Experiments" (1940), about the research work of physiologist Sergei Bryukhonenko. In that movie, he also brought his test dogs back to life – Chernoushka, Rabbit, and Naida, wagging their tails, confirmed that the dizzying experiments were a success.

And all thanks to Briukhonenko’s auto-light.

Sergey Sergeyevich, a hereditary engineer, a native of Kozlov (Michurinsk), went to the front in one thousand nine hundred and fourteen years, immediately after the medical department of the Capital Institute. He returned before the revolution, and for many long years he worked in the department of medical pathology and therapy at the military hospital in Lefortovo as an assistant doctor (a kind of like Bulgakov’s Doctor Bormental). Together with Doctor Sergei Chechulin, he developed a machine that could pump oxygenated blood into the body, replacing the heart and lungs by one hundred percent. The first trial with the "the auto injector" (as they dubbed it) was conducted as early as 1924.

The piling up of pumps, tubes, hoses and tanks looked frightening – but the magic was done. The auto injector was demonstrated at the II All-Russian Congress of Pathologists (1925), at the II All-Union Congress of Physiologists in Leningrad (1926). It was patented in the USSR, Germany, Great Britain, France.

In 1946 Bryukhonenko designed a bubble oxygenator ("artificial lungs"), he received a patent for it in 1937, – and the artificial circulatory apparatus was used in combination "auto injector + oxygenator". These devices are still being improved in our country and abroad. But the first one was “Briukhonenko”.

А. Belyaev. "Doctor Doel’s head"

The essence of the invention.

The design of the auto injector was similar to the circulatory system of a warm-blooded animal. Two diaphragm pumps (replacing the left and right halves of the heart), powered by electric motors, served as a mechanical heart. One pump sent blood through the arteries, the other pumped from the veins. Blood pressure in the vessels and temperature were maintained by automatic regulators. A Bayer 205 anticoagulant was used to keep the blood hydrated.

rivals.

Bryukhonenko’s followers were notable for their radicalism and publicity. Vladimir Demikhov, who studied the ability to transplant organs, in 1954 demonstrated a two-headed dog. In the same years, in experiments with dogs, Yank Robert Cornish achieved artificial maintenance of blood circulation with injections of anticoagulants and adrenalin combined with swaying the body on a stand (for "shaking" of blood.).

A year before the eighteenth century, in the blooming cornflowers at the outskirts of the village of Mitchenki, the hussar Lieutenant Prokopovich was lying down. Peter Ivanovich husked his seeds and pondered about the meaning of life. Anyuta Borovikova, a girl from the neighbourhood – how much sense is there in the fact that she is good-looking? A bee sounded in my ear and knocked me out of my mind. (It’s my little brother who’s got a bee hive for himself.).

Prokopovich is only 24 years old, he has all eternity ahead of him. Arrived home in Chernigov region (dismissed from service, it seems, due to illness), and his father, a village priest, excommunicated his offspring forever. There is a lot of fog in Prokopovich’s biography: for what reason?? But what we have is what we have.

Cornflowers blossomed all summer, Anyuta with a plait of hair was a muse, and inquisitive bees swirled. Pyotr Ivanovich couldn’t bear it. He looked into his brother’s hive one day. Later he confessed bluntly: as he looked at "at the beehive, at the bees themselves, sitting in it and making noise, suddenly his passion to start them flamed up".

I bought a tithe of land "♪ for his own settling ♪", and started bees. Was inexperienced, out of 30 two bee families survived only nine. And on the family front, it didn’t work out. Anyuta gave him two illegitimate daughters and a offspring, after that the landlord sent his illegal wife Borovikova in marriage in a distant village. And in one thousand eight hundred and one year someone burned down all Prokopovich’s belongings. And he was left with only ten rubles, two poods of honey in a jar, and bees. He began to live in a dugout – and to build beehives.

And there he went on and on.

By one thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight years the apiary had grown to three hundred families. In January 1814 Prokopovich invented the world’s first beehive with removable frames. He tried a variety of hives – deck and tent, made of grass, add-on and add-on, and built a barrel-shaped hive. But this square hive with collapsible frames was the best. A simple construction, but as if I had found a common language with the bees.

In one thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight years Prokopovich opened a school of beekeeping, half a hundred years taught 600 40 serfs, seconded by neighboring landlords. Too bad he was unable to publish twelve volumes of his own "Methodological essay on bees and beekeeping".

Prokopovich saw in Russia a country of honey, bees, and wax. It was as if he defined people by bees. He divided bees into three classes: 1) good, quiet and clever, 2) evil, nibbling and thieving, 3) ungood and stupid. Knew what I said: "I have penetrated farther into the secrets of the bee family than any of my predecessors. "

А. Chekhov. "The Steppe"

The essence of the invention.

Prokopovich’s beehive had an upper and a lower bottom. The inside of the hive is divided by 2 partitions into 3 compartments. The upper compartment (magazine part) was separated from the middle one by a board with cuts through which bees could freely pass but the queen could not go through to the magazine. Wooden frames, sized 245×175 mm, were slid into this section, put on the lattice and taken out freely.

Rivals.

The Polish Jan Dzierżon (but his collapsible hive appeared in 1898) and the German August von Berlepsch (1852) also claimed the lead in the invention of the frame hive.). Yankee Lorenz Langstroth patented his own beehive in the United States in 1851. An undeniable fact, Prokopovich was the first.

Grigory Semenovich refused to leave Russia after the revolution of 1917. And if so, he was invited to the Supreme Economic Council’s Glavkhim. While around shooting, Petrov studied the problem of oxidation of aqueous hydrocarbons of petroleum to produce carboxylic and oxycarboxylic acids.

You could have been punished by a lumpen proletarian for just saying that. But lucky for him, the chemist knew Gorky. And he in one thousand nine hundred and twenty-one years, told Lenin himself about Petrov: sticks, he said, in the wheels, not allowed to scientific need to go abroad. Ilyich didn’t hesitate, he scribbled to Unshliht, deputy vice-president of the Cheka-PPU: "I ask the NKidel and the Cheka to order the immediate admission abroad. "

Lenin! – Here is where the old man sat. Under the strong armor of Lenin and Petrov passed his own excellent scientific way, which began before the revolution.

Proletarian pedigree (born into the family of a sawmill worker) Petrov in one thousand nine hundred and four years, already with a diploma Kostroma pro mulyschika entered the service in St. Petersburg grease factory. And immediately distinguished himself. The warehouses were full of unsightly soap: they couldn’t sell it. Petrov, here’s the head, digested all that soap and added, without stirring, a catchy dye. The soap came out with a beautiful layered pattern. They dubbed it "marble" – and the whole thing just blew away.

But that was just the beginning.

Sulfuric acid cleaning of petroleum products produces sulfonic acids, which they didn’t know how to get rid of. Petrov came up with an important idea: if you can’t beat them, you have to use them properly. This is where the magic was revealed.

Petroleum sulfonic acids, which acted as fat breakers, turned out to be indispensable in the industry.

In addition, Petrov saw that when shaken, the petroleum sulfonic acid mixtures were foaming like soap. They turned out to have beautiful detergent properties and soften water.

That’s every housewife’s laundry detergent!

And for the guys do not need to know that the discoverer of detergents, the inventor of plastics has also made an indispensable in the home glue "BF".

Т. Thick. "Russian school", blog entry, August 2015.

The essence of the invention.

At the base of synthetic detergents acquired by chemist Petrov by the action of sulfuric acid on petroleum products contain surfactants (enzymes that decompose protein or fatty impurities) that simplify washing and do not suffer from hard water. In addition to ordinary laundry opening is widely used in industry – in the manufacture of lubricants, polymers, in the separation of precious ores from waste rock, the cool spinning of linen, leather processing.

Rivals.

Before the First World War, the Belgian chemist A. Reichler. Fritz Ponter, a German, spoke of their industrial use. But only the works of Grigory Petrov have opened wide possibilities for the use of synthetic detergents.

He was born in Petrovo-Marievka, a Donbass village steeped in hard mining work. Apparently, as a thirteen-year-old child he came to the mine as a rock picker. By the age of 18 he grew up to be a mine fitter "Tatiana". And later went off to war.

Only came back in 1919, all in ruins. Typhus killed my father and two sisters. But the Russian Republic set out to revive Donbass. German mining machines came to Pervomaysk, the first "cuttings" companies "Eickhoff ". But without adjusters. Eventually Alexey Bakhmutsky, the mechanic of Pervomaisk Mining Department, could not stand it anymore: he opened boxes with big German emblems, examined the machines to the smallest detail, adjusted them, trained others. The Germans came, and ours had moustaches of their own.

But Bakhmutsky knew it was yesterday’s day. A miner needs revolutionary new equipment. All these cutting machines, pumps, assembly lines are always malfunctioning. And if all the machines were combined in one?

Shared with his assistant, Fyodor Chekmarev, a master of gold (albeit dark) hands. Without any blueprints the two of them assembled the miracle machine in the workshops. And in 1929-1992 it won the second prize (no one won the first one) at the All-Union contest for the best harvester!

On August 17, one thousand nine hundred and thirty-two, in the mine "Albert" passed the tests. Under the hand of Bakhmutsky, as was written at the time, the mighty heart of the machine came to life, and it simply sailed down the face. The coal-tracker B-1 traveled twelve meters and loaded 20 to 5 carriages.

The newspaper "Kadievsky Rabochiy" notified the workers here: "The coal cutter-loader is working in a 100-meter long long long face, at once felling, cutting and piling coal, replacing for one cycle twelve miners, six miners and two drillers. With the start of the coal miner there is no manual labor in the longwall".

But Bakhmutsky saw the shortcomings of his own brainchild. Improved it, tested it again. By 1939, the Kirov plant in Gorlovka. Kirov plant produced five of his machines. Work was going on on a strong model B-6. But during another test, tragedy struck. The miner’s injury turned out to be fatal.

A year later, his combine B-6-39 produced 23.6 tons of coal per hour – twice as much as the first standard.

(В. Kaverin. "Two Captains")

The essence of the invention.

In the B-1 combine Bakhmutsky used a rod cutter, which was widely used in the Donbass. The combine cut the coal seam near the ground with the teeth of the lower connecting rod and the vertical chain bars cut the rock from top to bottom. The upper arm hammered away the coal with its percussive-cutting elements, which fell on the scraper assembly stream.

Rivals.

The idea of making coal shearers was first suggested by the Russian designer A… Kaleri back in 1897. In 1930s in America appeared O Tula coal combine – but it could only work in the soft coal, falling down just behind the undercut. Then came the McKinley shearer – massive, with nine men to maintain it, but not very productive. Russian version of similar harvester was Chehachev’s machine. But they were all inferior to the first mining shearer designed by A. I.И. Bakhmutsky.

The offspring of Tiflis retired clerk Alkun Kapelyushnikov, who served half his life in a regiment of military cavalrymen. A graduate of the Tomsk Institute of Technology, not at all in the oil field. But in 1915 Matvey Kapelyushnikov got to Baku. And drilled his way in!

By 1915, he was already.. "top manager" at the trust "Azneft". S.М. Volokh and N.А. Kornev. All three of them are experts in drilling and know the main failure "of the oil industry"Drilling is inefficient: wells are drilled inefficiently. The rotor rotates the longest string of pipes going deep into the hole, when what they should be rotating is a single bit, a cone bit, gnawing at the rock. And by 1922, the inseparable trio developed a brand new turbodrill. A year later, it was tested from the oil company’s wharf. Later, at the Surakhan oilfield, they won the 600 meters. And then it was off and running!

С "comrades", But there was an oddity. In the autumn of 1924 the three of them filed an application with the USSR Committee on Invention. But in February 1925, a joint statement was issued: "”In view of the agreement between us. we ask the Committee: that the patent for the invention. include only the single name of Matvey Alkunovich Kapelyushnikov". The road ahead of Semechka Volokh and Nikolai Kornev melts in this fog of uncertainty. But we remember them with gratitude. The twentieth century is a thing of the past, when the miracle inventions were the work of a handful of loners.

And Kapelyushnikov was already expected with bread and salt from the Americans. In one thousand nine hundred and twenty-nine years, he and his wife Varvara Andreyevna, a team of workers and two turbodrillers set out across the ocean on a two-year business trip. The dumbfounded Yankees asked to sell them a patent or a license, but no, ours were like flint.

In 1929 Kapelyushnikov was buried at Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow.

К. Saimak. "Building site"

The essence of the invention.

The 1st experimental construction of the reductor turbodrill, made by Kapelyushnikov, Volokh and Kornyov, weighed about one ton. The cylindrical shell was equipped with an engine – the single-stage turbine was driven by clay mud that was pumped by the pump through a cavity in the drill pipe. Not everything was perfect. But this first turbine at the show in the U.S. was 60 percent faster than conventional rotary drilling rigs and used about half the energy.

Competitors.

Already in 1932-40 the creative team of GINI (Municipal Research Petroleum Institute, later Research Institute of Drilling Technology) under the direction of the professional engineer and organizer Peter Pavlovich Shumilov abandoned the idea of reduction in turbo bore and built a low-speed multi-stage turbine.

Not everyone can cross the two-pound weight. Dmitry Pavlovich was simply performing a trick that brought the circus audience to ecstasy. He was a strongman. The weight is the kettlebell, but the offspring of the military intendant Grigorovich spent his life making seaplanes (and also ordinary planes) – he managed to design more than sixty different types, 30 out of them were put into series production. After polytechnic school in Kiev and study in Belgian Liege, he moved to St. Petersburg and in 1912 became technical director of "of the first Russian aeronautics association, S…С. Shchetinin & Co".

And a year later he built the new type of seaplane that would become traditional.

Before Grigorovich the problem had been solved primitively by placing simple land aircraft on large floats. The young engineer built a flying boat. It could take off and land in half-meter waves. The bottom didn’t.. "sticking" …and it just bounced off the surface of the water. The two-seater M-5 seaplane simply accelerated to a respectable speed of 100 5 km.

Obviously, it was immediately adopted for service. And in April one thousand nine hundred and fifteen years the M-5 made its first combat flight, which confirmed its high flight performance, and the next year it bombed the Turkish ports of Zunguldak and Istanbul. The purchase of foreign planes, however much the bureaucrats grumbled, was gradually abandoned.

Until one thousand nine hundred and seventeen years Grigorovich had time to design the world’s first maritime fighter M-11, a flying sea torpedo carrier (with a 1000-kilogram torpedo on board), and a flying naval cruiser.

Naturally, Grigorovich tried to serve the newest power. But the M-22 and M-23 reconnaissance planes he made did not go into mass production: they had no suitable engines. Grigorovich got drunk out of despair. Of all his designs, only the four-seat civilian airplane survived to serial production. Grigorovich and a group of designers were sent to a "the sharashka", where he, together with Polikarpov, made the famous I-5, later the I-7. And what did they "shahrashka" – people are obsessed!

In 1938 he organized a new OKB-153. The same year, on July 20th, he died of white blood. He was buried with honors at Novodevichy.

Э. Hemingway. "Garden of Eden"

The essence of the invention.

On the whole, the hydroplane is identical to a land plane. One "but"A hydroplane needs buoyancy, buoyancy without sinking and stability on water – like a ship.

engines above the wings to avoid being submerged in water. Instead of the usual unit (engine at the front in combination with a dragging propeller), Grigorovich started using a pusher propeller on the wing behind the pilot. This reduced the risk of flooding the engine with water and improved the pilot’s view.

Competitors.

In 1918/18 the U.S. War Department, having received from the "the White Army" a number of seaplanes, organized the mass production of similar – without reference to the original source. French also began to pass off as Henri Farman’s invention the design for attaching the wing box to the fuselage, developed in 1917 by Grigorovich for the flying sea cruiser MK-1.

Kind of stuffy. The jolly Pavel Alexandrovich adored the freshest air. But for the moment he was worried that maybe.

The airship slowed down to 4 meters per second. Opened a special hatch, there the emptiness hissed and the White Sea crumpled like a sheet. It’s time. Five cubic meters of hydrogen from the tanks "Count Zeppelin" ♪ Already in the balloon of the balloon ♪. Suspended from the balloon is a radio device of his, Molchanov’s design. And a guillotine weight. The radiosonde will fall while the airship has time to get to a safe distance. At the signal of the clock mechanism the knife will cut the string and the balloon will pull the probe into the stratosphere.

This polar flight was organized in 1931 by the International Society.. "AeroArctic". German scientists invited their Russian colleagues on an expedition to "Count Zeppelin": from Germany via Leningrad to the Arctic and back. Of course, how could one not call on Molchanov: it was he who launched the world’s first radiosonde (labelled "271120") a year before, on January 30, 1930. From the Main Geophysical Observatory in Pavlovsk the radiosonde has left on height 7,8 kilometers, in two minutes after start-up the signal was received: temperature -40,7 C. First aerological bulletin for Leningrad Weather Bureau and Central Weather Institute. New round in the development of meteorology: from now on it is possible to obtain clear information about the free atmosphere at altitudes up to 30 km.

Molchanov is remembered to have been a frightening goody-goody. Short, plump, round face, moustache trimmed, eyebrows burned out, grayish suit always ironed out, white collar starched. Born in Volosovo, Tver province. After the physics department of St. Petersburg Institute in 1914, he immediately went into the army. In 1919 he was engaged in restoration of the aerological observatory in Pavlovsk near Petrograd.

In February one thousand nine hundred and forty-one years he was appointed Head of the Department of Aerial Instrumentation at Leningrad Aviation Institute. And in April, two months before the war, merry Molchanov, the greatest scientist of meteorology, the father of Russian aerology, was arrested. It is unclear who and what denounced him. Maybe they remembered the flight with German collaborators. In October of ’41 the prisoners were loaded into a barge hold to be evacuated along the Ladoga. There was nothing to breathe. They were suffocating.

The guards shot everyone who climbed the stairs to catch his breath. Molchanov – he was only forty-eight – couldn’t breathe without fresh air.

М. Pavich. "The Stallions of St. Mark"

The essence of the invention.

Molchanov’s comb radiosonde was simple, comfortable, and cheap to make. A nacelle with a single-lamp radio transmitter, temperature, pressure and humidity sensors, and switches are suspended from the small balloon. A wire fixed along the sling of the balloon serves as a transmitting antenna, and a free hanging wire serves as a counterweight.

The aerological laboratory determines the characteristics of the atmospheric layers through which the probe passes based on the nature of the acquired signals. The temperature is determined in the range from +40 to -60, the pressure from 30 to seven hundred mm of mercury column, and humidity up to 100%.

Rivals.

Molchanov’s radiosondes were beyond competition. They proved to be so perfect that they were used virtually unchanged until the year 1898.

Alexander II, who lost the Crimean War, listens to Pirogov, who, to quote my colleague, "" the tsar such truth about his sorrowful appointees, that such a freethinker – out of sight". Returned – when called upon to organize our infirmaries in the criteria of the Turkish War. I made a condition – complete freedom of action. I was given . Went and worked in Bulgaria. When he came back, he became a prominent citizen of Moscow.

I wouldn’t say that this fate is broken by autocracy. It’s dictated by the unpredictable Russian history. It’s a hero’s destiny.

Alexander II proclaimed another one of his able-bodied "as His Majesty’s photographer" – He was very good at taking pictures. But he was even better at inventing submarines. And torpedoes. For that, he sold his photographic studio and joined the naval service. And yet..? . No money, no recognition. Ivan Alexandrovsky died in a clinic for the poor in one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four (thirteen years after Alexander II was killed by the revolutionaries). And torpedoes? The British started making them.

The 3rd version of the high role in the destiny of the inventive hero is the story of Nartov. Practically an idyll: a 16-year-old student of the school of navigators is noticed by Peter the Great and appointed his "personal turner". Until his own death, he keeps him in his custody. After the death of a guardian – rollback: "the turner" from the palace. Later they bring him back. Later they deport him again. The lost grave of Nartov was found two hundred years later. In 1950 it was buried in the cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. Next to Lomonosov.

How to deal with a similar ""?

Reflecting on this, I come to the conclusion that the confrontation of lonely heroes and their enemies in royal times is not a clash of fronts. It is specifically "the huddle". Growing up and finding their own way, clever women develop a heroic loyalty to their own purpose. Even in unpredictable situations.

While revolutionaries are hunting for the Tsar in St. Petersburg, two friends in Odessa are building a balloon out of bindery linen.

And in another brutal era, inventor Grigorovich, together with inventor Polikarpov, develops fighter planes. For the front, for the glory of Russian power. But either the authorities didn’t have enough materials or money – the work was interrupted. Grigorovich begins to drink out of despair. but ends up drinking because he’s given the opportunity to think about new planes. And the nugget does this beloved work until his last days.

A minor clarification: he does his favorite work in a "A minor detail: he does his favorite work. ". Everyone who’s read Solzhenitsyn knows what a sharashka is. But he was buried with honors.

This, as unfortunate as it may sound, is common in our outstanding literary men: not enough human warmth, and immediately and glory is given to them in life. Let us pay tribute to their memory at least after they are dead. I dare add another figure to our proud list.

The boy, who as a child lived through the Great Russian War, graduated from the Mechanical Institute in Tula. Goes to work for a federal enterprise "Alloy", where he invests his brain and talent in improving combat systems "Grad", "Hurricane", "Smerch". Becomes a Hero of Labor.

His work is known throughout the technical world. Only his last name is unknown, since he works in a closed defense system (not to be confused with the “sharashka”).

The great weapon designer died in February of this year, and his name became common knowledge. It bears the glow of our ineradicable funnelling: Denezhkin.

Leo Anninsky.

* in the previous version of the article a mistake was made and the photo of Alexey Bakhmutsky is incorrectly signed with the name of Andrey Vlasenko. We apologize to the readers.

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